Software Project Management: A Process-Driven Approach

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Part IV reveals the human side of project management with chapters on managing the team, the suppliers, and the customers themselves. Part V wraps up coverage with a look at the technology, techniques, templates, and checklists that can help your project teams meet and exceed their goals. A running case study provides authoritative insight and insider information on the tools and techniques required to ensure product quality, reduce costs, and meet project deadlines. This book presents all aspects of modern project management practices … includes a wealth of quality templates that practitioners can use to build their own tools.

Ashfaque Ahmed has more than 22 years of experience in the software industry. He has worn many hats during his career, including that of a project manager, test manager, system analyst, and business analyst. He has managed projects of sizes varying from a few thousand dollars worth to projects worth millions of dollars. Some of the larger projects ran for a span of more than two years. He has also worked on software product development projects that typically run for decades and that keep adding new features and modifying existing product features almost endlessly.

Ahmed is a popular author. He is also a contributing author at Technology Evaluation Centers www. This book presents all aspects of modern project management practices, from project initiation to requirements gatherings to estimation techniques and software testing all the way to customer management and supplier management … includes a wealth of quality templates that practitioners can use to build their own tools. We provide complimentary e-inspection copies of primary textbooks to instructors considering our books for course adoption.

Stay on CRCPress. Exclusive web offer for individuals on all book. Preview this Book. Add to Wish List. Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Summary To build reliable, industry-applicable software products, large-scale software project groups must continuously improve software engineering processes to increase product quality, facilitate cost reductions, and adhere to tight schedules. Praise for the book: This book presents all aspects of modern project management practices … includes a wealth of quality templates that practitioners can use to build their own tools.

Author s Bio Author. RUP does not set the limit but does recommend that there should only be 3 to 9 iterations per project with a duration of 2 to 6 weeks for the iterations. Iterations can be up to 8 months for very large projects using RUP. Roles define the responsibilities within each of the 9 workflows in RUP. There are over 40 roles defined by the RUP.

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Each role is specific which one of the team takes on. Every person in the team takes on one or more roles. Each role can have more than one person assigned to it. These are mostly either documents or else collection of documents. The people assigned to certain roles created and update the artefacts for that role.

There are more than different artefacts defined by the RUP. Activities link the roles and the artefacts together by having the person in a role create or update the artefacts during a specific activity. There are over 60 workflow details defined in the RUP between the 9 disciplines, each of which are broken down into more steps. It conveys the steps required in order for a task to be completed and does so in a non-technical manner so that anybody would be able to understand it. This makes is much easer for the system developers to work with the customers and helps in finding out what the actual requirements of the customer are.

Comparing of the agile software development, the Plan-driven development is a traditional development method, it does more emphasise particularly on plan and architecture. The first rank paradigm of Plan-driven methods is related with capability maturity model CMM. Plan-driven software development is come from system engineering and the criterion of quality, builds up the principle of system engineering, coordinates lots of components which need work together accurately.

In order to push the process of software development, the Plan-driven development precisely depends on clear procedures. Typically, the waterfall lifecycle model starts with some requirements analysis, moves into design, then coding, then implementation, testing, and finally maintenance. Every phase all need its former correct specific requirements, then can continue. Note however that the example plan-driven methodologies above all use the incremental model, none use the waterfall model.

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So the key point of plan-driven software development is definition of the process and management. The advantage is its comparability and repeatability in association with the improvement of the procedure. The main flaws of some plan-driven software development are that requirements change over time, as businesses and the environment in which they operate change rapidly.

So it could not suitable for rapid development. Furthermore, the Plan-driven software development advocates predicting change using the framework. The framework will affect some waste of the resource in this rapid development environment. At last, from the culture aspect, plan-driven development could not let people feel comfortable, authorised, and more freedom under development. Incremental model, such as the example methodologies above, and spiral model plan-driven software development better accommodate change through the use of iterations than the waterfall model.

With the hype surrounding Agile methods, there is a temptation to believe that plan driven development is effectively defunct and is only used in very specific circumstances on very specialised projects. While it is difficult to get exact data on the popularity of various software development methodologies there are a few surveys which provide some level of information. All of these suggest that Waterfall development is still widely used, even though that is declining as agile methods like XP become better understood.

Another indicator of the persisting use of waterfall style development is the body of work being produced that addresses ways of transitioning from waterfall and other non-iterative plan-driven processes to iterative development processes such as the three example methdologies above , and also techniques for mixing both types of processes. Open source projects are effectively incompatible with most forms of plan driven development.

In most cases it is impractical to apply the level of process and documentation to open source projects. The team membership grows and shrinks through the lifetime of an open source project. Contributors often only engage in the parts of the project in which they have an interest or even appropriate expertise. Participation is often voluntary.

Software Project Management | A Process-Driven Approach | Taylor & Francis Group

It would be impossible to ensure that contributors were trained in or complied with a process-heavy development process. Also, the consensus based philosophy of the open source development process is effectively incompatible with the bureaucratic, top-down organisational structures that are characteristic of most plan driven development processes. Within the software industry, plan driven development is still widely used on military and government projects, particularly many that mandate the incremental model. It also prevails in many large financial institutions. There is plenty of evidence to suggest that even these organisations are transitioning to other iterative and especially agile processes and methodologies.

Process Driven Development

Whether these organisations will eventually transition completely away from the 'old-style' processes remains to be seen but for now it is likely that the two approaches to software development must co-exist. The team applied IID in a series of 17 iterations over 31 months, averaging around eight weeks per iteration. There are many reasons why organisations persist with plan driven development processes like the incremental methodologies above and Waterfall.

Requirements of suppliers to meet standards set by customers may dictate the development process that is used in a given organisation. Aspects of iterative development may be incompatible with the standards set by customers. For example the US Department of Defense standard An evolutionary approach is preferred.

May organisations have teams that are well versed in existing plan driven development processes. Many of these will be highly skilled professionals with a track record of delivering software using a plan driven process. Abandoning these proven processes and embarking on retraining is often difficult to justify. In many cases the software development process is part of a larger process within the business.

Changing the development process without disrupting other processes and keeping to required standards is not an easy thing to do and may be obstacle to adoption of different e. There are issues around documentation that arise when using iterative development. In it's first form, more bureaucratic organisations that value project documentation will have difficulties adapting to certain aspects of the iterative process where standard design, architecture and other planning documents are not as prevalent. This is also another area where iterative development processes can come into conflict with meeting required standards.

For a project manager versed in waterfall plan driven development, iterative development projects such as the incremental plan-driven methdologies above are initially daunting. There is a lesser degree of predictability with iterative development which is a natural consequence of increased flexibility. Cross all of the issues above is the culture within a company. Iterative development can be a huge upheaval both personal and professional within an organisation.

Often iterative development can pose such a radical change in work practices as to appear unworkable in organisations well versed in Waterfall style development. Requirements Engineering: The state of the practice. Survey says Agile has crossed the chasm. Converting a project from a waterfall to an iterative approach. Turning Waterfall Contracts into Scrum Contracts. With every endeavour taken it is proven by experience that a methodological approach saves times and provide better quality results.

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This also applies to software development. All methodologies that are used by software developing organisations can be categorised into two main streams namely Plan-Driven Development and Agile Development. Both these methodologies include components such as defined processes, procedures and documentation. However it is the approach in utilising these components to successfully complete a software development project. Plan-driven development may be broken up into waterfall development and plan-driven incremental development, as detailed above.

In order to understand the different approaches that define either Plan-Driven or Agile development in software engineering, it is important to identify the general phases that occurs in nearly any software project. The International Organisation for Standardisation ISO conducted research that led to the establishment of a standard ISO that describes a set of processes and tasks that defines the lifecycle for software.

While some methodologies might work with different phases in a particular project domain, the following phases are repeatedly apparent in software development cycles. There is one major fundamental difference between Plan-Driven and Agile development. Plan-Driven development tends to be successful in an environment where all properties of the end product are specified in detail and provides a clear model of a fixed end result. It assumes that a project is predictable and therefore it is possible to plan and design the whole from beginning to end form the start.

An example of a Plan-Driven Development in practice can be the construction of a large building. In this an architect designs the building completely based on the requirements of the customer before the first brick is laid. A software example could be an application that allows remote workers to connect to the office and access company specific resources. In contrast Agile development is a much better approach when the properties of the final product cannot be determined on beforehand.

The projects requires a basic part of the project to be built in order to determine what is needed in order for the product to evolve. To give an example of Agile development in the same context as the remote workplace, a client could need a portal that includes intranet, extranet and online collaboration for internal and external workers that are based locally or remote.


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Since the requirements are somewhat unclear it impossible to design the whole system upfront prior to implementation. It requires exploration of requirements for certain deliverables in every separate component. The following table provides examples and descriptions of each software development phase applied in either Plan-Drive or Agile software development. File:Plan-driven vs agile comparison table. Categories : Pages with broken file links Software development. Namespaces Resource Discuss. Views Read Edit View history. In other languages Add links.

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