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These studies are at the crossroads of urban and regional studies today. As a geographer although many historians might agree , I regret that so few contributions focus on the evolution of the functions and the locations of the cities, and on their changing roles in shaping networks and territories at various geographical and chronological scales.
However, this book already provides a wide variety of subjects and disciplines and is a very important contribution to urban studies in Indonesia. Book reviews Ernst van Veen, Decay or defeat? Price: EUR With the extinction of the old line Philip II of Spain grabbed the opportunity to invade Portugal and proclaim himself ruler, meeting very little resistance in the process. For the next sixty years Spain and Portugal were thus united under one Iberian Crown.
This political arrangement had global repercussions since the two kingdoms had established possessions and strongholds in America, Africa and Asia over the past century. It is generally agreed that these sixty years saw a decline of the Portuguese position in Asia. But what was the nature of this weakening of Lusitanian power? What were the factors behind the decline? Was it a matter of social-economic decay, or was it due to political- military defeat? A substantial amount of scholarly interest has been accorded these com- plicated questions in recent decades, and in the present thesis Ernst van Veen takes on the challenge of the task anew.
Unilinear explanations of history, as he remarks, might be handy, but they are also misleading. In fact the causes of the Portuguese decline in Asia cannot be other than complex. There was a decline, to be sure, but the decline proceeded on different levels which involved the social and financial fundaments of the overseas Portuguese realm, the actions and policies taken by its Dutch rivals, and concurrent developments in Asian kingdoms. These various levels or themes are ana- lyzed in the nine main chapters of the book. The analysis is built on some second-hand works, with use also being made of published Dutch and Portuguese source materials and a number of original VOC sources from Dutch archives.
To begin with, any idea that Spanish Castilian rule in Portugal was disastrous in itself can safely be discarded according to Van Veen. Philip II vowed to respect the laws and customs of the country, and unification made little difference in the way it was administrated.
For the economically important New Christian merchants converts from Judaism , the unifica- tion was beneficial. Spanish forces were also essential for fighting the Dutch in Brazil, for the sake of Portugal. Furthermore, the effects of hostile Dutch naval action must not be overemphasized.
Rather, the sudden decline of the Carreira had to do with the exodus of New Christians from Portugal to other Habsburg areas after - in other words, it was an endogenous development. There is no deny- ing that the position of Portuguese settlements in Asia was fragile, but this is also a demographic issue: the slighter chances of survival understandably made sea travel to the East less popular than migration to Brazil.
The almost medieval organisation of the Estado da India the Portuguese administration in Asia did not exactly improve things either. Van Veen devotes considerable space to the rise of Dutch power in Asia. He observes that trade between the United Provinces and Portugal was car- ried on in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in spite of the various embargoes and prohibitions. The famous first voyage to the Indies in was undertaken for defensive reasons rather than out of eco- nomie pressure - had the Dutch not established themselves in the Indies, the English might have preceded them.
A clear strategy on the part of the VOC during its first decades of existence, up to the mids, is hard to discern. Dutch actions were not co-ordinated well enough to have a real impact on the Portuguese establishment until the last years of Habsburg rule, and in particular the few decades after An essential, but according to Van Veen often overlooked factor concerns the role of indigenous Asian rul- ers, the reis vizinhos. The first decades of the seventeenth century saw several expansive regimes in West, South, Southeast and East Asia which for various reasons actively undermined the position of the Portuguese.
To sum up, Van Veen identifies a number of institutions and interest groups associated with what the literature terms the Portuguese 'empire'. All these components went into decline in the period under scrutiny, but they did so for various reasons. From to , the Portuguese lost a number of essential Asian strongholds to the Hollanders as the latter belatedly worked out a winning strategy. While Decay or defeat? The bulk of the text is writ- ten in a dense way that makes few concessions to the non-specialized reader although the book does include several well-chosen illustrations.
I would have wished in particular for a more forcefuUy argued conclusion, since the present text ends somewhat abruptly, without making sufficient attempt to tie the many loose ends together. The author seems to have mastered the materials relating to the European factor in Asia very well, although it is hard to see how he could leave such an obvious name as Wallerstein out of the discussion. For example, the Bahmani king- dom split up long before the last nominal sultan was deposed in and Vijayanagar was not destroyed but seriously weakened in From the references it does not seem that Van Veen has gone very deeply - despite his declared intention to do so p.
With these reserva- tions, the author has in my mind produced an often thought-provoking reinterpretation of an exciting period in the history of European expansion. Price: USD 30 paperback. The analysis focuses on the ikat textiles of the small island of Savu near Timor, and attempts to define the links between mythology and weaving in order to demonstrate how the textiles have 'formed the fabric of Savunese society throughout time' p. The considerable depth of the genealogies made it possible to recon- struct developments over time, while links were also established with known historical events.
Throughout the text references to comparable social systems and textiles from other regions in Indonesia add to the scope of the analysis. As scholars such as Detaq, Fox and Kana have shown, the names and deeds of the male ancestors of the localized patrifocal origin groups have long been common knowledge within and also outside the community. However, the names of the early female ancestors related to the origins of weaving, and those of the two non-localized matrifocal origin groups, have remained hidden within the progenitrix groups. A series of diagrams makes it clear that this secret section of the genealogies precedes the progenitor lines by many generations.
Localized patri- focal groups udu, clusters came to regulate land ownership and religious and political affairs, while the two matrifocal groups hubi ae and hubi iki, 'greater blossom' and 'lesser blossom' play a predominant role during life- cycle rituals, most importantly weddings and funerals.
This is the logical out- come of a continued preference for marriage within one's matrifocal branch group and of the belief that women and also men reunite with the ancestors of their progenitrix line after death Chapter 2, pp. Through their weaving skills, the women also give expression to the rela- tionships among the living and the ancestors. A detailed description of the rituals related to dyeing and weaving Chapter 7 , and analyses of the tech- nical, iconographical, and metaphorical features of male and female dress Chapters 4, 5, 6 , demonstrate the close way in which the textiles are inter- woven with the two moieties of the matrifocal system.
Only a few of the most salient examples can be mentioned here. All weavers establish a continuous link with their ancestors by starting and finishing each weaving season with the particular motif of their descent group. This motif is also prescribed to be worn at their own wedding and funeral, the beginning and the end of their mature lives.
The formats and the motifs of the weavings are gender-spe- cific. Particular patterns for women indicate their matrifocal group or branch wini, seed affiliation. A distinction in format and colour marks a woman's specific hubi, while additional stripes in floating warp imply that her husband belongs to a ranked group. Male patterns, by contrast, tend to refer to male activities, or to individual qualities of the wearer such as wealth, rank, or residence.
The terminology used for the sections of women's skirt cloths, and to a lesser extent also men's blankets, reveals that each textile is considered a seeing, breathing body. Some ritual cloths for men consist of two unequal halves representing the elder and the younger female moiety, or alternatively the elder and the younger brother. Tiny colored stripes in some of the male cloths denote the wearer's relation to a specific place of residence - be it a vil- lage or one of the four ceremonial domains p.
This, incidentally, seems at variance with the statement that the male loin or shoulder cloths do not incorporate any features representing the patrifocal origin groups p. All of these examples are valid only for the types of cloth used by that diminishing segment of the population that still adheres to the traditional religion Jingi tiu.
Several centuries of conversion to Protestantism and coloni- al influence have given rise to a large body of 'neutral' designs that combine elements of both female origin groups, and feature an additional, technically more advanced ikat method. Textiles of this type have long been preferred for secular or Christian festivities. Textiles are thereby shown to function equally as visual reminders of the past p. The gener- ous number of excellent illustrations in colour and in black and white enables the reader to visualize the subject matter of the book clearly.
On a final critical note, it may be suggested that closer editing of the text and a more consist- ent system of numbering the illustrations will add to the quality of future volumes in the series. ISBN Prijs: EUR 70 gebonden. Het boek van Groeneboer geeft naast een inleiding pp. Verder is een lijst met afkortingen gegeven p. In de inleiding geeft Groeneboer een schets van het leven en werk van Van der Tuuk, toegespitst op de periode waarover het boek handelt.
Deze inleiding voorziet de lezer kort en bondig van de noodzakelijke kennis voor het bestuderen van de bronnen. Een klein punt van kritiek betreft de overgenomen? Wat het boek precies biedt, krijgt de lezer echter pas te horen aan het begin van de verantwoording p. Hier geeft de auteur allereerst de afbakening van zijn onderwerp, zowel inhoudelijk als chronologisch. Het ware voor de lezer echter nuttig geweest deze kennis al aan het begin van het boek, dus voor de inleiding, gekregen te hebben.
Tenslotte verantwoordt Groeneboer de wijze van uitgeven van de correspondentie.
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Onder de problemen die haast elke editeur van bronnen heeft te overwinnen, had Groeneboer er wel een hele bijzondere op te lossen. In de periode stuurde Van der Tuuk een serie brieven waarin hij de stomme e geheel had weggelaten, hetgeen het lezen en editeren van de brieven er niet eenvoudiger op maakte voorbeeld in Bijlage V, pp. Groeneboer verklaart p. De correspondentie van in totaal documenten is doorlopend genummerd, chronologisch gerangschikt en onderverdeeld in vijf perio- den: 1.
Voorbereiding in Nederland, nrs. Naar de Bataklanden, nrs. Tussenverblijf in Amsterdam, nrs. Naar de Lampongse Districten, nrs. Naar Bali, nrs. De brieven zijn voorzien van een uitstekend en uitgebreid notenapparaat, waarin een schat aan zinvolle informatie is samengebracht. Steeds is hier ook de vindplaats van het betref- fende document vermeld. In de bijlagen zijn andere stukken gepubliceerd, waaruit we Van der Tuuk beter leren kennen. Hieronder zijn de brieven ter aanbeveling van Van der Tuuk aan het NBG en enkele persoonlijke herin- neringen van tijdgenoten.
Ook zijn enkele stukken opgenomen die op basis van tekstmateriaal van Van der Tuuk zijn vervaardigd. Deze bronnenuitgave maakt het nu voor het eerst mogelijk om voor de periode een duidelijk beeld te krijgen van de eigenzinnige Van der Tuuk.
Dat was op grond van de eerder uitgegeven, fragmentarische brieven- editie van Rob Nieuwenhuys Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk; De pen in gal gedoopt; Brieven en documenten verzameld en toegelicht, , Amsterdam: Van Oorschot; tweede herziene druk in , Amsterdam: Querido om verschil- lende redenen eigenlijk niet mogelijk.
Allereerst bevat deze teveel fouten in transcriptie en annotaties en is dus voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek minder goed bruikbaar. De grote verdienste van Groeneboer is dat hij met deze complete bronnenuitgave nu de lezer in staat heeft gesteld om zich zelf, ten- minste voor de jaren , een beeld te vormen van leven en werken van deze bijzondere wetenschapper.
William Atkins, The politics ofSoutheast Asia's new media. ISBN 0. Price: GBP 50 hardback. It focuses on the policies adopted by national and international political insti- tutions and media organizations in response to the intemationalization of the Southeast Asian media landscape. The book shows that these policies were of a highly pragmatic nature and often had complex and unpredict- able results.
It provides a convincing argument against the technological determinist notion that the liberalization of the Communications industry necessarily leads to the liberalization of discourse, or to democracy. At the same time it propagates, and accurately illustrates, the benefits of the 'inter- dependence model' in media studies, which accounts for multiple layers or unexpected outcomes of media events and processes of decision making pp.
The book evolves around four major stages in the development of the Southeast Asian media landscape: 1. Two separate chapters dis- cuss the roles of governments and media organizations in two national crises: Bangkok, May , and Jakarta, June-August The exploration of these heightened moments of crisis is meant in the first place to highlight frictions between transnational business activities and national politics, but Atkins also notes the existence of pacts and agreements between national govern- ments and foreign media institutions.
The book unravels the character of these arrangements and relationships by using sources ranging from media reports, policy documents and industry publications to personal interviews with government and industry players. The main medium focused on in the book is television. The development of television industries in Southeast Asia began in the s, keeping pace with, and becoming a crucial factor in, the nation-building efforts of the region's newly independent states Chapter 2.
Right up to the s 'the television sector remained consistently more a voice of the state than did the press - a reflection of both the print medium's heritage predating the post- colonial state and its private ownership base' p. During the latter half of the s, the Southeast Asian states were forced to develop strategies for fac- ing the anticipated internationalization of television. Atkins argues that the policies of states were often very contradictory: on the one hand the shared concept of 'Asian values' was used as a weapon against the Westernization of home cultures through Communications, but on the other hand each state individually tried to gain economie benefits from international Communi- cations by presenting itself as the premier regional 'Communications hub'.
Problems also arose within states, with ministries of information attempting to block rransnarional information flows while ministries of telecommunica- tions supported open-border policies Chapter 3. A more successful strategy was to deflect the attention of audiences from purchasing this equipment by offering them the alternative of domestic multichannel environments. States abandoned the idea of exclusively gov- ernment-owned television and allowed the creation of national commercial television channels. International channels could also be part of the new multichannel systems, as long as they agreed with the conditions set by the national governments.
While governments reasserted their control, interna- tional players such as Rupert Murdoch with his News Corporation distanced themselves from earlier statements about a causal link between satellites and democratization and took commercial advantage of the chance to develop discrete nation-specific services in collaboration with domestic, government- linked 'sultans of satellite' or 'media moguls' Chapters 5 and 6. During the economie crisis of , the transnational media once again changed its stance by starting to criticize the 'Asian miracle' and the celebrated East and Southeast Asian models for economie development, and pleading for more transparency in accordance with international business norms Chapter 8.
The real losers in the internationalization of Southeast Asian Communications have been international public service broadcasters such as BBC World, which saw their position marginalized due to regional political and commercial resistance as well by a lack of eco- nomie and political support from their home governments p. If satellite broadcasting and other types of modern communication were ever potential agents of democratization, the decline of public services has seriously under- mined that potential.
Atkins provides a very clear insight into the contradictions, pragmatism and politics of the international Communications industry at the macro-level. His book gains extra strength through its comparative analysis of the media environments of different Southeast Asian countries. Rather little attention is paid to transnational services other than satellite television such as radio and the internet , or to the international circulation of 'small' media such as videos, VCDs and audio cassettes.
The book also contains hardly any analy- sis of media texts, audiences, and practices on a meso- or micro-level. What makes it indispensible, however, is precisely the fact that it puts studies that do address these latter issues in a wider political and economie context. Poline Bala, Changing borders and identities in the Kelabit Highlands; Anthropological reflections on growing up in a Kelabit village near an international frontier. Price: USD KING This is an intriguing study which addresses issues to do with the modes of representation of 'otherness', the problematical authority with which anthro- pologists can claim to speak about and for other cultures, and the status and role of the native anthropologist as both 'insider' and 'outsider'.
This brief monograph commences with a most interesting Prologue pp. Bala opts for autobiographical ethnogra- phy, and her account describes vividly her personal and academie struggle, her feelings of being overwhelmed, confused, intimidated, exhausted and upset in confronting the enormity and complexity of her task.
At one point she recalls her disappointment, alarm and pain when a non-Kelabit ethnog- rapher had 'misinterpreted and misunderstood certain unspoken sensitivi- ties surrounding a particular cultural greeting amongst the Kelabit' p. She does not indicate whether or not the ethnographer responded to these criticisms, and if she did, in what terms. The main themes of Bala's empirical study - she emphasizes that she is not making a contribution to social theory - are the changing meanings and perceptions of borders, boundaries and identities among the Kelabit. In other words, she is concerned with the ways in which boundaries are constructed and represented, and their consequences.
These are not merely politico-terri- torial and ethnic borders, but also borders between 'self' and 'other', between anthropologist and native, observer and observed, dominant culture and minority culture, the 'exploiter' and the 'exploited'. She also sets out for us a diverse range of social and cultural spaces and their boundaries for investiga- tion, including the hearth, family unit, longhouse, village, ricefield, relatives, downriver and upriver people, as well as such concepts as boundary marker tung and meeting place apu'. The book is an extensively revised version of the author's MA thesis submitted to Cornell University in Bala says that she left the Kelabit Highlands in , though she has returned frequently for visits to family and friends since then, in addition to a more extended period of research in Her focus was her own village of Pa'Umur.
In addition to her concerns about the relationships between investigator and informants and the ambivalent position of the native researcher, her main argument about the changing significances of the international bound- ary between Malaysian Borneo and Indonesian Kalimantan is a relatively straightforward one. It has particular importance for the Highland Kelabit because the boundary cuts through and separates populations of the same ethnic and cultural stock - those who are family and relatives lun ruyung.
Bala refers to her own emerging awareness of this political, and indeed eco- nomie, divide in, for example, her geography lessons at school, and through the stories, songs, genealogies and recollections of her informants, she demon- strates how the creation of the formal division between Brooke Sarawak and Dutch Borneo eventually came to imprint itself on the minds of the Kelabit. So a familiar theme in the anthropology of Southeast Asia - and that is the change from conceptualizations of unbounded space, fluid boundaries and shifting frontiers, and from openness, interactions and networks, to demarcated ter- ritories set down on maps and protected, policed and monitored by separate sovereign states - is pursued in this personal account of a small, and up until recently, relatively isolated Dayak community in interior Borneo.
The monograph makes for an interesting read. It is well written and pre- sented, though at times it has the feel of a postgraduate thesis, and some maps could have benefited from clearer reproduction. Bala also leaves us at times with some tantalizing observations, but indicates, as a native anthro- pologist, that she is unable to talk about these in any detail, and in some cases she has had to be very selective in what she is prepared to say because of local sensibilities.
Therefore, the reader can only guess at the reasons for and character of certain processes and events. ISBN 2. Price: SGD 42 paperback. Innermost Borneo is a collection of 13 articles, papers, and essays focusing on the interior peoples of the upper Mahakam and Kapuas and in particular the Aoheng , although a few chapters deal with the island as a whole.
In pages the reader is guided through many fasci- nating aspects of life in the interior of Borneo, traversing subjects as diverse as traditional rituals, historical migrations, social stratification, and ethnoge- ology. The 30 years in which Sellato has been engaged with Borneo, and in which he became the adopted son of a prominent Aoheng ritual leader and a village council elder, add up to a unique experience and have generated a wealth of material that gives rise to fascination for the island and its people.
This text deals with the first Western attempts to obtain access to the interior of the island and describes the scientific signifi- cance of Nieuwenhuis's explorations. The two chapters that follow sketch the ethnic and cultural situation of the upper Kapuas area in and the upper Mahakam area in Detailed lists of all ethnic groups and villages are pro- vided, including the number of inhabitants and many other details. Current statistics, however, are not given, and although certainly of historical value, the population figures for the Mahakam area in particular are now much outdated.
In Chapter 4, the last of the more introductory chapters, Sellato deals with the use and control of forest resources by the Punan Tabung and Aoheng, and with the recent conflicts that arose when government officials started to challenge customary ownership and supported attempts by out- siders to gain access to these resources. Initially, Sellato was of the opinion that the encroaching outsiders would be detrimental to the sustainability of resource exploitation as traditional management of resources made way for overexploitation by outsiders.
In his postscript, however, he states that 'further acquaintance with the Aoheng and the Punan of Tabang' led him to revise this idea, and even concludes that 'notions of "sustainable exploitation of natural resources" and "sustainable development" in situations such as that prevailing for interior Kalimantan's forest products have become simply meaningless and should be done away with' pp.
Chapter 5 deals with the forms of social organization found among the ethnic groups of Borneo: nomads, non-stratified agricultural societies, strati- fied societies, and the coastal sultanates. What then follows is an evaluation of Levi-Strauss's concept of the 'society of the house', but unfortunately this concept itself is poorly explained, and references to it are absent from the bibliography.
Sellato concludes that the concept only applies to some of Borneo's societies: the stratified societies, the sultanates, and some non-strati- fied groups. In fact, the Bornean 'house' should be considered as a system of 'houses', 'encased in one another, like a nest of Russian dolls' p.
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The village, a group of longhouses, a longhouse itself, or a household can all be regarded as 'houses'. Social organization is further scrutinized in Chapter 6, which is an in-depth study of the wide variety of linguistic terms used for in-laws in central Borneo, and in which Sellato investigates the correlation between the process of sedentarization on the one hand, and changing post- marital residence practices on the other.
Sellato suggests that the complex affinal terminology structure encountered today in central Borneo is con- nected to the transitional phase of sedentarization of nomadic groups. The nomads, originally utrolocal, gradually settled down and adopted uxorilo- cality from their settled neighbours, while also importing affinal terminologi- cal categories from neighbouring groups or from agriculruralists elsewhere.
Book reviews The next rwo chapters deal with the cultural history of central Bornean hunter-gatherers. Chapter 7 investigates the origin of the hunter-gatherer groups on the island. Based on ethnohistorical, linguistic and cultural argu- ments, Sellato refutes the idea of 'devolution' that has been put forward by others, and introduces an alternative view of a Neolithic colonization of the interior by Austronesian-speaking hunter-gatherers and horticulturalists. This is a very important piece of work, not so much because it presents a complete and undisputable reconstruction of Borneo's past, but because it provides valuable insights that can be used for comparison with other regions, and against which new historical findings can be tested.
The scope of investigation in Chapter 8 is much narrower. Here Sellato analyses a short manuscript, written by a Bukat leader in , describing and commenting on one of the Bukat legends. As Sellato states, 'we have here a rare clear Southeast Asian example - and in written form - of an in-the-process manip- ulation of the historical tradition by a hunting-gathering society' p.
This, Sellato argues, seems to be related to the nomads' ongoing adaptation to a settled way of life. While reading the article, I wondered what the Punan leader or other Bukat would think of Sellato's interpretation. Unfortunately my curiosity was not answered. With Chapter 9, the focus shifts from historical to cultural themes. Based on detailed historical reconstructions, Sellato shows how the Aoheng ethnic entity came into being through complex processes of migration, splitting off, and intermingling of cultural groups over a period of two centuries.
Crucial for the Aoheng's coherence and identity, Sellato argues, was a ritual called pengosang, which became the focus of ethnic identification and a 'statement of ethnicity' p. Chapters 10 to 13 are succinct essays examining Aoheng religion and the role played by women and men in rituals, an Aoheng puri- fication ritual involving the sacrifice of a pig, an all too brief overview of the forms of traditional Aoheng oral literature including an example of an Aoheng folktale, and finally a fascinaring investigation into Aoheng ethnoge- ology describing how the Aoheng perceive the mineral world and examining the concept of 'stone' in Aoheng religion.
As already noted, the book is a collection of a wide variety of published and unpublished material. The 13 chapters demonstrate that over the past 30 years Sellato has without doubt become one of the most knowledgeable anthropologists dealing with the interior of Borneo. Any serious scholar interested in central Borneo should read this book, which also provides plenty of interesting material for comparative analysis with other regions in the world.
The book is rather technical at many points and occasionally goes into extreme detail, and is therefore not really suited to a broad public. For instance, terms like uxorilocality or anisogamic marriages are explained either not at all, or only half way through the book.
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Some chapters contain so much detail that only very motivated readers will remain interested, for instance where the distribution of ethnic groups or historical migrations are discussed. In order for Sellato to achieve his goal, it would have been better if the collection of articles had been reworked into an integrated anthropo- logical monograph.
Apart from some very minor editing of the text and bib- liographies, and several brief postscripts in which some recent developments are mentioned, the chapters have not really been integrated, nor have they been updated with new insights. This volume shows that Sellato possesses a wealth of material and knowledge on the interior peoples of Borneo which would enable him to write a great anthropological monograph on the Aoheng that would fit his goal of making Borneo more familiar to a wider public. Rudolf Mrazek, Engineers of happy land; Technology and national- ism in a colony.
MICHAEL LAFFAN This book fuses some of the author's previous articles together with new writings to form a beautifully crafted and idiosyncratic take on Indies soci- ety and its love affair with the modern in addition to a largely unmentioned imagining of the nation. In five chapters based on different forms of technol- ogy and their elite engineer advocates, Mrazek shows in a remarkably inti- mate way how the Dutch insulated themselves within their colonial world and rendered Indonesia and Indonesians as picturesque, distant, and framed subjectivities.
The five chapters are concerned with 1. This quintet of subjects treated through close attention to numerous popular colonial magazines; as well as to the accounts of the engineer-explor- ers whose life interests often crossed over these various fields.
The book is then completed with an epilogue on the famous former exile, Pramoedya. But whereas the Dutch used so many of the techniques Mrazek describes to make themselves distant and safe observers 'floating' over a volatile world, he demonstrates how Indonesians were adept at making these tech- nologies their own, and, as an indigenous class of engineers arose, subvert- ing them.
He shows, for example, how Indonesians were to make use of trains and newspapers, and even to take advantage of air travel. Of course the gross inequalities of their society were laid bare by these technologies, as natives sat in the cheaper seats or were mapped and discovered by colo- nial town planners and inoculators. However in the area of dress, Mrazek's 'Indonesian dandy' could take Western uniforms livery and styles and make them his own statement of identity.
Indonesians too were eager listeners to broadcasts from colonial studios with their apartheid of air-conditioned Dutch and non-air-conditioned Native chambers. In chapter five the radio is used to examine the chang- ing mentality of the colonizers, divided by distance from the metropole, yet participating in its culture. It is both amusing and poignant when Mrazek notes that the last advertisement for a radio specifically designed for the Netherlands Indies was for a model able to function in the jungle to which the Dutch might soon have to flee from the Japanese p.
Indeed Mrazek's account begins in the jungle, and such internal cross- referencing is all part of the web of objects and practices that pulls the book together so nicely. At a glance this might seem random, yet it feels as though Mrazek is deftly doffing his cap to Pramoedya, who seems to have his own penchant for echoing seemingly innocuous pieces of information.
This is notable from Mrazek's account, when he quotes Pram's claim to have put on 28 kilos in Holland p. At first, I feit that the inclusion of the chapter on Pramoedya's exile did not sit so seamlessly with the rest of the work. However Mrazek makes the link, describing Pram's own early desires to join the august ranks of the radio technicians and his experience at the hands of the New Order regime, which owes so much of its technical proficiency to Dutch forebears. But that is nationalism of another sort, different from the powerful mix articulated in Mrazek's book, which is a rewarding and insightful read that will be of use well beyond the jungles of Indonesian historiography.
Price: GBP 65 hardback. He criticizes the dominant explanation, offered by authors including B. Schrieke, C. Benda, W. Wertheim, B. In the gradual development of Indies nationalism, Laffan rather stresses the role of Islam as a major factor, more espedally the ambiguous and changing contacts of Indies pilgrims and students of Islamic religious sciences with the Hijaz and Cairo.
Among the characteristics that enhance the scholarly value of this book are its frequent discussion of previous scholarly work in the field and Laffan's clear explanation of disagreements. Benedict Anderson's Imagined communities; Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism ; revised edition: London, Verso, is an important case in point.
Laffan does adopt Anderson's idea that the development of an 'imagined community' is a key factor in the development of nationhood, but, contrary to Anderson, he attributes a major role to religion and to interaction with Middle Eastern Muslim centres in this process, rather than to contacts with Western civiliza- tion, education, and script. Laffan also refers to various concepts and research themes that play prominent roles in contemporary social sciences and humanities in gen- eral, such as identity, modernity, alterity or 'Otherness' and the interaction between globality and locality.
However, he would have enhanced the inter- est of his book if he had linked up more clearly with some of these general scholarly debates, instead of merely using the concepts. In the case of ecumene, for example, the author does refer to C A. Bayly and his use of the same concept in the meaning of a single community of thought, exchange, and communication pp. On the one hand, the religious dimension of the Jawi ecumene is underscored throughout the book; on page , however, it is the linguistic and ethnic dimensions that are contrasted with religion, which allegedly became a basis of solidarity at a later, post-ecumene stage.
The direct subject matter of the book, on the contrary, is treated in much detail and very well documented. The author has even included references to publications that appeared after the original version of his book was submitted as an academie dissertation.
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Whereas scholarly concepts such as ecumene, nationhood, identity, and modernity are not discussed extensively, the development of various concepts and terms used by the Indies Muslim population which is the subject of the book, such as watan, tanah air, bangsa, nusa, and ummat, is. The work is not only interesting for its main argument and the new light which it sheds on the origins of Indonesian nationalism.
It also offers a wealth of facts and analyses pertaining to the development of Islam in the Dutch Indies, the Hijaz, and Cairo. This wealth, unfortunately, sometimes tends to obscure the general argument of the book, which is explained, repeated, or summarized very well in certain passages and at the beginning of a few - not all! One of the most interesting elements of Laffan's analysis is his under- standing of the process he studies as a complicated one, in which not only multiple successive stages may be distinguished, but also various paral- lel developments, which met at decisive moments.
This is why his book, although concentrating on religion, also discusses language and script. This is also the reason why the argument through the successive chapters not only moves chronologically from more distant to more recent periods, but also zigzags between the Hijaz, Cairo, and Southeast Asia and lays particular stress on the importance of the merging, in the first decades of the twentieth century, of Sumatran and Javanese reformisms, each with its own experienc- es, network, language, and script.
Within this broader framework, and refer- ring to the works of Victor Turner and Abderrahmane El Moudden, Laffan develops two of the most interesting theoretical elements of his study: his analysis of the hajj as an ambivalent - or ambiguous - experience, and his portrayal of the participation of Indies Muslims in various concentric levels of community, namely as Javanese or Sumatran, as 'Jawi' Southeast Asian Muslims , and as members of the global Muslim community.
Other passages, in fact, show that Laffan knows better. More indirect hints in the same direc- tion include his remark that the creation of the Jamiah Setia Pelajar in Cairo in mirrors the foundation in of an association of Indies students who had been brought to Leiden in the framework of the Ethical Policy, as well as his attention to the French influence on Egyptian intellectuals in about the same period. The fact that Laffan's discussion of the relation between Indies Muslims and Indies indigenous non-Muslims remains almost entirely lim- ited to a few short remarks relating to the creation of Pancasila and to contem- porary issues also implies that the book leaves some questions unanswered.
The book also contains a few weaknesses of a more secondary order. Laffan's characterization of the Islamization of the 'lands below the winds' as a process of 'negotiation'?! His judgement of the attitude of the Dutch authorities towards reformist schools in Sumatra as benevolent p. Contrary to what appears to be sug- gested on page , the use of the title of Caliph by late nineteenth-century sultans was nothing new to the Ottoman dynasty; it was the pan-Islamic ambitions of the Ottomans which were new in this period.
Michael Laffan's book is highly recommended not only for those inter- ested in the history of Islam and the Muslim community in Southeast Asia, or in Indonesian nationalism, but also for scholars of society and religion inter- ested in nation formation and in the role of religion in politics. Unfortunately Curzon, formerly known for its accessibility for authors and affordability for readers, nowadays as RoutledgeCurzon appears to focus on hardback editions sold at prices prohibitive to the non-institutional buyer.
A much cheaper paperback edition of Laffan's work would not only render a great service to the public, but might very well be in the commercial interest of the publisher too. We should look forward to the results of Laffan's further research in this field. Heidi Dahles, Tourism, heritage and national culture in Java; Dilemmas ofa local community.
Price: GBP 45 hardback. The unlicensed tourist guides, in the end, absorb a labour force that would otherwise be unemployed p. The chapters of the book guide the reader from the New Order regime deployment of tourism 'as the engine of modernization' to the oppressive regime's collapse through non-passive forces. Some 'winds of change' are noticed in the Epilogue p. At the same time, the book's mood teeters on the verge of a collapse much more extensive than the change of the Suharto regime into the Habibie regime and then the Wahid regime: an absolute collapse, when all the tourist people will be swept into the abyss of the apocalyptic moment when Yogyakarta becomes 'out of fashion' p.
This teetering gives Dahles' book an appeal of its own, and the value of a historical document. In its author's words, the book is 'basically an ethnography of tourism' p. For anybody interested in tourism, indeed, the text is highly informa- tive, and facts and numbers are wisely used. This review, however, first of all reflects the unexpected pleasure of a historian who got to read a wrong book. The good feeling comes from the unfamiliar approaches of a 'book about something else' to one's own research problems that often appear already 'settled' or 'overwritten'. For instance, Mas Marco Kartodikromo and his Indonesian dandy heroes of the early twentieth cenrury, figures of early nationalism, are newly recalled.
Now they became the mostly unlicensed tourist guides of Yogyakarta: 'some wear their hair long, dress in hippie clothes [ They originate from kampung and act on the sidewalk; strikingly like their great-grandfathers in the colonial era, they are regarded by the authorities of the day with an 'exaggerated' p. As back then at the beginning of Indonesian modernity, they are chained by naming, labeled for instance Har, 'wild', a slavish and timeless Indonesian and post-colonial translation of the Dutch and colonial wilde.
They 'cannot possibly be suspected of any organized or planned subversive activities'; they 'ever refrain from making political jokes'; and 'their foremost aim is to please the tourist' p. They 'have to spend some of their money on the tourist lifestyle in which they must to some extent partidpate' p.
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They, too, are hooked on progress. They, too, eagerly read and study - from the used guide books left behind by foreign tourists. They, too, dream - about getting a ticket from a 'female occasionally male tourist' to her or his 'home country' p. Then they might go, 'voting with their feet' p. Indeed, this is the most real democ- racy they have. Large numbers of them - Yogyakarta is famous as 'the city of education' p. The way Dahles portrays the 'tourist infrastructure' of Yogyakarta p.
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This is the dichot- omy on which her book is based: on the one hand there is 'streetside' - 'gov- ernment-controlled discourses and territories' and 'wealthier and more influ- ential cirizens living in concrete houses along the main streets of the city'; on the other hand there is kampung, 'urban poor dwelling in ramshackle houses cramped together higgledy-piggledy behind the main streets' p.
There is, she argues, a government-constructed image of 'two different worlds' exist- ing 'side by side' in a 'dualistic structure', 'supposed neither to converge nor to conflict'. One of these parallel worlds is 'dominant', 'developed', 'profit- able', the other 'dependent', 'underdeveloped', 'traditional' p. This is, and has been since the late-colonial period at least, a highly func- tional, and also theatrical touristic mechanism of enclosure. On the one side of the tunnel of modernity, there is an 'escape'.
On this side the deep- est a foreign tourist or a scholar, or an agent of change? The language of tourism is well heard here, and this too makes this book valuable beyond the realm of Tourism Studies. From an extensive array of government guidebooks and action plans, minutes of local travel agents' meetings, materials used by schools for tourist guides, local tourist maga- zines, leaflets and folders, interviews and taped 'discourses of tour guides' p. Late-colonial echoes, again, are heard. Catchwords of colonialism -'security', 'orderliness', 'hospitality', 'beauty', 'cleanliness', in their true element in tourism - are still forcefully there or there again , sometimes in Indonesian, at other times translated, passing over Indonesian, directly from imperial Dutch into global English p.
The voices of foreign tourists, and thus a large segment of the story, may at first seem to be missing. Soon, however, the reader realizes that Dahles' own language and accent is that missing 'visitor's' voice. The high quality of this book lies partly in the fact that its author is so extraordinarily decent and unabashed about it.
Kathleen M. Price: USD 55 hardback. ANKE NIEHOF The often taken-for-granted context of everyday life, and the housework that supports it, is increasingly the subject of research by social scientists, includ- ing those working in the field of Asian studies. Current studies that focus on the domestic sphere no longer start from naive assumptions about the household as a unit in which joint utility is always maximized, and as a dis- crete actor clearly distinguishable by boundaries of unambiguous household membership.
Instead, in the work of Naila Kabeer, Amartya Sen, Pauline Peters, Judith Bruce, Diane Wolf, and others the household is seen as a locus of both conflict and cooperation or as the 'arena' of everyday life, with perme- able and shifting boundaries and embedded in external networks and relat- ing to societal institutions.
In this way, gendered intra-household inequalities with respect to authority, power, access to resources, and the values under- pinning these, are made visible. The volume under discussion fits within this evolving trend. The choice for the concept of hegemony as the analytical core of the book reflects the view of the home as a space of unequal relationships, and of positions and identities that are forged and contested, parallelling the characterization of the household as the arena of everyday life.
The preference for the concept of home instead of household for denominating this space presumably derives from the more prominent association of home with the private sphere and all values attached to it. The spheres of home and household indeed overlap, but while the first refers to familiarity, kinship, closeness, and emotional well-being, the second revolves around the daily provision for basic, material needs and the management of resources to this end. The fact that domestic workers are employed to contribute to the latter, but, at the same time form part of the home and share in its intimacy, leads to a continuous process of defining and negotiating positions and relations.
The essays in this book uncover a rich array of mechanisms and strategies applied in this process by all parties involved, ranging from the use of kinship terminology and jesting to seeking representation in the public sphere and enhancing solidarity among domes- tic workers.
Especially for readers who are interested in kinship as metaphor, or in kinship and hegemony, the volume provides interesting material. In the introduction to the book the editors discuss the key concepts. They observe that studies which apply the concept of hegemony in the context of the household are rare. The work of Aafke Komter, who uses the concept in relation to the marital relationship, may be an exception. However, as already stated, studies that analyse the ways in which positions, relations and identities are negotiated and contested in the domestic sphere are less rare.
The fact that none of the authors I mentioned earlier are referred to seems to indicate the existence of two parallel discourses in the social analy- sis of domestic space. The first two essays in the book present case studies from India. The open- ing essay by Sara Dickey looks at the self-images of employers and domestic servants in the city of Madurai. The narratives of both groups have strong moral overtones, but they differ in the significance attached to class.
In the study presented by Rachel Tolen on employers and servants in the railway colony of Madras, class plays a central role. This case shows that the more servants become versed in their employer's lifestyle and the more they take on the household practices of their employer in short, the smarter they become , the more the employer feels the necessity to fortify the boundaries of class. In the essay by Saubhagya Shah on Nepal, kinship and rural-urban linkages are the dominant themes. Schooling is another. By addressing their youthful servants from the rural area in kinship terms and enabling them to go to school, the employers secure for themselves both leverage and a moral justification.
Caste is ever present; having a Brahmin cook is prestigious. In the essay by Jean-Paul Dumont about 'helpers' in the Visayas Philippines , terminology plays an important role - although not, in this case, kinship ter- minology. Dumont analyses the way in which meanings came to be attached to the terms referring to domestic helpers.
Subtle differences in identity and status are expressed, sometimes paradoxical, in niceties of terminology. This political economy includes the domestic workers overseas - the non-domestic domestic workers, so to speak. Three essays in the volume are about Indonesia. The first, by G. Weix, analyses the proverbial servirude of Javanese servants in the household of a wealthy women entrepreneur, whom they typically address as ibu mother and to whom the female servants are like 'daughters-in-law'. The role of gift- giving as a mechanism for defining and confirming the employer-employee relationship is striking in this case.
The second Indonesian chapter is situated in the Toraja highlands Sulawesi. In this essay, Kathleen Adams describes how employers maintain the asymmetry in their relationship with their servants by using kinship metaphors, and how servants contest it by jesting. Kathryn Robinson, known for her publications on changing gender roles in Indonesia, describes a case in which discourses on Muslim identity, feminin- ity, and Indonesian nationalism collide in the discussion about the position of Javanese women working as housemaids in the Middle East.
The patriarchal self-image that the Indonesian New Order politicians liked to foster is under- mined by allegations that they do not do enough to protect these women from abuse by their Muslim employers. The other cases of women working overseas as domestic helpers concern the migration of Sri Lankan women to the Middle East, and Filipino domes- tic workers to Hongkong. The author of the first essay, Michele Gamburd, sketches a moving picture of the plight of mothers who leave their fami- lies to earn money for their own children's future by caring for somebody else's, and thereby end up losing their rights and privileges as mothers.
The experience of these in some cases desperate mothers is one of fragmented motherhood. In addition, their dream of having a nice home and a prosper- ous family in the future may crack when the husband squanders the money sent home instead of saving it. The second essay, by Nicole Constable, is less depressing, because the Filipino women working as housemaids in Hongkong have forged a bond of solidarity and use their national identity to strengthen their agency.
The other side of this coin is that some employ- ers try to find domestic workers from other countries whom they expect to be more docile. Another essay also concerns transnational negotiations in the domestic context: the article by Louise Kidder examines the relation- ship between expatriate employers and their domestic helpers in Bangalore, India.
Relations of hierarchy and dependency can be reversed depending on the immediate context. Expatriates may be the bosses but they are helpless in the kitchen or the market, camouflaging their dependency on the servants by referring to the latter as being childlike. The volume ends with an essay by Karen Tranberg Hansen, who returns to the concept of hegemony. She further observes that paid domestic work has not become obsolete, but rather has increasingly transcended national bounda- ries and also the borderline between the private and the public sphere, thus becoming part of international political economies.
New Guinea remained an issue for later settlement. The events of the Indonesian struggle for independence from to have been much researched and written about. The story of these years has become a sort of classic portrayal of a former colony winning its independence from a reluctant colonial master. In writing about the Netherlands' side of this struggle, the author had access to several public and private archives, a twenty-volume publication of documents related to the events of these years, memoirs and biographies of many of the leading personalities, and countless secondary accounts written from every point of view.
The source materials related to the struggle between the Dutch and the lndonesians are so extensive that H. Klooster published a separate bibliography of the subject in to assist scholars of the future. It is clear that the Dutch side of the struggle is more fully documented than the Indonesian side.
It must be said that Van den Doel has made good use of these sources, for his book is carefully researched and annotated. The book is also force- fully and clearly written and leaves no doubt regarding the author's feelings about the Netherlands' position in the events of to In a word, Van den Doel finds that position shortsighted and narrow-minded.
Saturday, 1 February Retrieved Nearly all subjects of the medieval fiefdom of Sark gathered last week around a gnarled oak tree in their parish churchyard to mourn Dame Sibyl Mary Collings Beaumont Hathaway, 21st Seigneur of Sark. The Daily Telegraph. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Categories : Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB 20th century in politics Lists of colonial governors by year Lists of 20th-century people 20th-century rulers.
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