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Swindon: National Trust. Ganz, T. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Gill, N. Accessed 19 Jul. Grahame, K. London: The Bodley Head. Hattersley, R. New York: St. Hobsbawm, E. London: Michael Joseph. Hynes, S. London: Pimlico. Johri, V. Business Standard, September Accessed 5 Jul. Llewellyn, J. Alpha History. Lichfield, J. The Independent, December Accessed 24 Jul. Littlejohn, T. MacMillan, M. The Wall Street Journal, June London: Penguin Random House. The Guardian, May 3. Mount, H. The Telegraph, October Accessed 4 Jul. Pettigrew, J.
New York: Little, Brown and Company. Smith, W. Stevenson, D. World War One. British Library, January Stout, M. The New York Times, May Walden, G. New Statesman, April Thus, when thinking about how to pay homage to her academic career, it seemed appropriate to turn our attention to other highly acclaimed short story writers. This paper explores some autobiographical writings of two Canadian authors, who share, among other happenstances, their dedication to the short story: Alice Munro and Mavis Gallant.
While focusing on these texts, some questions about the relationship between fiction and fact are raised, as well as some considerations on reader responses to such writing. Byatt, 2 but Mavis Gallant and Alice Munro have delved into it recurrently. We all knew that she is one of the very greatest living writers, but she has always seemed to be almost a secret. Now everyone will know. The same holds true for Mavis Gallant. This paper is based on research carried out as part of a Research and Development Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness ref.
FFIP , whose support is gratefully acknowledged. Mavis Gallant and Alice Munro were contemporaries but their lives have been fairly different. While working as a reporter for the Montreal Standard, she discovered her passion for writing fiction and decided to move to Europe to pursue her aspirations of becoming a fiction writer. Since then, Gallant published regularly in The New Yorker, where a hundred and sixteen of her short stories appeared. Munro was born in in Wingham, Ontario, Canada, the region where she has spent most of her life, except for a year period, when she moved to first to Vancouver in and then to Victoria in with her first husband.
Besides, she was made an Officer of the Order of Canada for her contribution to literature in and promoted to Companion of the Order in Officer, Order of Canada, Fifteen collections of books and numerous prizes later, in , she announced at the age of 81 that Dear Life was going to be her last collection of stories.
Probably the most outstanding difference between these two writers is the fact that Alice Munro has lived all her life in Canada, while Mavis Gallant is one of the most notable Canadian expatriates, having spent most of her life in Paris. Accordingly, Munro has mostly favoured small-town rural Ontario as the setting for her stories, while Gallant usually takes Europe as the backdrop for hers.
Both have written predominantly short stories, many of which were published initially by The New Yorker; critics and reviewers like to compare them with one of the most universal short story writer: Anton Chekhov; and both were encouraged to write longer fiction. In , after her divorce, she became Writer-in-Residence at the University of Western Ontario, and in at both the University of British Columbia and the University of Queensland. Leaving biographical facts apart, perhaps the most defining feature of these writers is their dedication to the short story.
Munro has published almost exclusively short stories. As mentioned above, there seems to have been some pressure for her to write longer fiction. New had already considered, not only the flouting of literary genre conventions, but also the abundance in the production of short stories in emergent literatures as a manifestation of alternatives to the Eurocentric canonical tradition. Coincidentally, these excerpts deal with a time she spent in Spain trying to live on her fictional writing and going through some rough patches while trying to do so.
Knopf announced plans to publish her personal journals of her life in Paris. Nonetheless, Gallant has also published a play and a collection of essays and reviews. According to Sandra Martin, at the end of her life, Gallant devoted her attention to her past: The past preoccupied her more than ever in her last years because she was preparing her diaries for publication. That project, with the help of trusted friends, editor Frances Kiernan and lecture agent Steven Barclay, will be published in Toronto and New York in Tentatively titled The Journals of Mavis Gallant: , the book covers a nearly year period from soon after she arrived in Paris through the student riots in It is significant that a writer like Mavis Gallant, who had mainly published fiction throughout her career, should engage herself at the end of her life with autobiographical writing that she had produced for over 50 years to They made him impatient.
I could sense it. It is often the case that some readers and critics are intrigued by the degree of autobiographical content in the stories they read. In this respect, Gallant explained wonderfully how different elements mingle in fiction and how inapprehensible they are: If fiction grows out of the layers of time, memory, imagination and invention, it ought to be possible to dig into the foundation and analyze each element, down to the bedrock. But the truth is that it resists analysis, all but the most shallow and humdrum, and cannot be tested or measured or, really, classified and contained.
And yet in another way, Gallant seems to want to shy away form the personal, although her introduction to Home Truths makes it clear that while she disclaims the personal, it keeps breaking through in the unlikeliest of ways. Lecker already pointed it out as a general stance in the assessment of Canadian literature: The critical value that equates quality with verisimilitude is not confined strictly to the assessment of Canadian novels and poetry.
Short stories are also evaluated from a mimetic perspective. Truthful—and like life. Often, the semi-rural southern Ontario settings of her stories, where Munro grew up and where she now lives, have triggered an autobiographical reading. Munro herself has frequently been asked about the truth content of her stories.
For example, in an interview published by The New Yorker when her collection Dear Life was published, Munro referred to the autobiographical component in her stories: I have used bits and pieces of my own life always, but the last things in the new book were all simple truth.
According to Shama, we might similarly consider that Alice Munro has rejected autobiographical writing. When choosing the stories that she would include in the collections that appeared over the years, a number of them were consistently put aside. Munro has addressed the relationship between reality and fiction also in her stories. Gradually, Munro has acknowledged a more autobiographical quality in her collections. They form a separate unit, one that is autobiographical in feeling, though not, sometimes, entirely so in fact.
I believe they are the first and last — and the closest — things I have to say about my own life. She claims to hide some facts while disclosing some feelings, which seems to work against our intuition, since readers would expect someone to keep their feelings to themselves sometimes to avoid being hurt or to protect people close to themselves , while facts would seem more readily accessible and verifiable. On the whole, it seems surprising that both writers have turned to a more autobiographical writing towards the end of their lives or writing careers.
We may wonder whether it is the result of a natural development or if there are rather pressures from publishing houses and ultimately from the readership to know more about the lives of successful writers. A little introduction was included before the excerpts: In , at the age of twenty-eight, Mavis Gallant left a job as a journalist in Montreal and moved to Paris.
She published her first short story in The New Yorker in , and spent the next decade travelling around Europe, from city to city, from hotel to pension to rented apartment, while working on her fiction. The following excerpts from her diary cover March to June, , when Gallant was living hand to mouth in Spain, giving English lessons and anxiously waiting for payment for her New Yorker stories to arrive via her literary agent, Jacques Chambrun.
In the thirty six excerpts published, the reader has access to the impressions and feelings of a young woman travelling from France to Spain. Her dominant concerns were her budding career as a writer and not falling victim to starvation in the process of becoming a writer. The style is not exactly polished and sometimes telegraphic, but contains detailed descriptions, which at times make use of different figures of speech and effectively convey both what she feels and what she sees.
The backdrop they portray is a bleak picture of mid-century Spain, which seems to echo in a perfectly suiting pathetic fallacy the difficult times she is going through, because her literary agent is not sending her the money her short stories published in The New Yorker are earning her.
Even the sea compares to steel, which further reinforces the idea of greyness and coldness. Its smell is cooking oil. Through the following entries, she recounts her ups and downs, how she has to sell the valuable personal items she brought with her to have some money to buy food. This refusal to put down on paper some negative experience raises again the question of the audience. When she wrote this diary, who was the intended audience? I never rid myself of the hope, though, God knows, after this last year I ought to be shot of it.
Sometimes I want to hit the sides of the buildings in the street with my fists and tear at the tree trunks or anyone passing by. Nobody knows this. This passage shows her suffering and also the fact that she feels alone with no one to share her troubles with. When Gallant moved to Europe to become a fiction writer she probably imagined a much more cosmopolitant and glamourous picture: a place thriving with life and cultural enticements.
Why did The New Yorker choose precisely these passages to offer them to its readers on the occasion of her death? At the same time, it explores her relationship with her mother. It shifts back to a ten-year-old narrator and the effect the voices of a group of British soldiers comforting a slighted young prostitute had on her.
I had two small children and nobody in Vancouver to leave them with. We could barely have afforded the trip, and my husband had a contempt for formal behavior, but why blame it on him? I felt the same. But we do—we do it all the time. Munro After having explored various complicated mother-daughter relationships in many of her stories, Munro writes this final story of forgiveness: about forgiving others, but mostly about forgiving oneself. Her narrative—with its open endings, multilayerd plots and non-judgemental points of view—has kept readers from passing judgement on her characters.
In becoming the main character of her stories she puts herself in the same position and not only avoids judging her behaviour, but also forgives. If this really turns out to be her last collection of essays, she has managed to close her writing career on a wonderfully reconciliatory note. According to the The American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms the moment of truth is: A critical or decisive time, at which one is put to the ultimate test, as in Now that all the bills are in, we've come to the moment of truth-can we afford to live here or not?
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This expression, a translation of the Spanish el momento de la verdad, signifies the point in a bullfight when the matador makes the kill. In addition, this expression is very appropriate for the purposes of this paper, because it makes reference to some of the key issues discussed here. First of all, we need to consider the element of truth. When writers presents a piece of writing sustaining that it reflects what has happened to them in real life, in other words, as autobiographical, the attitude of the reader may vary considerably.
His analysis of autobiography is more nuanced than others, because rather than considering merely a dichotomy between autobiographical and non-autobiographical writing, he perceives autobiography as a variable constitutive element. Nevertheless, the question remains: why should it be of any importance whether the stories are more or less autobiographical? Another question that this paper has brought up is why at such a critical moment writers should turn to autobiographical writing.
It was relatively uncomplicated to answer the previous question. However, the answer to this one seems much more elusive. Or rather is there a wish to find out about the real person, the writer, the mind behind the stories that have delighted us? De Man, P. Ballantyne, M. Irvine eds. Translocated modernisms: Paris and other lost generations. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 23— Gallant, M. Accessed 4 Mar. Accessed 5 Apr.
Howells, C. Staines ed. The Cambridge companion to Alice Munro. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Hunter, A. Lecker, R. The canonization of English-Canadian literature. Ontario: Anansi. Oviedo: RKO. Martin, S. The Globe and Mail. Accessed 2 Mar. Munro, A.
London: Penguin. Toronto: Macmillan Canada. London: Vintage Books. Toronto: Vintage. The art of the short story in Canada and New Zealand. Pascual, N. Somacarrera ed. Made in Canada, read in Spain: Essays on the translation and circulation of English-Canadian literature. London: Versita, Redekop, M. The stories of Alice Munro. London: Routledge. Rothman, J. The New Yorker, 18 Feb, Accesed 6 Apr.
Scobie, S. Open Letter, 12th series, 1: — Schama, Chloe. Accessed 3 Feb. Somacarrera, P. London: Versita. Stevens, P. Gunnars ed. Transient questions: New essays on Mavis Gallant. Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, Thacker, R. Stich ed. Reflections: Autobiography and Canadian literature. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, Alice Munro: Writing her lives. Accessed 27 Jul. Treisman, D. The New Yorker, 20 Nov. Accessed 5 Jun. Therefore, heterosexuality is not frequently questioned and it claims certain privileges that transcend sexual and private spheres.
Hartmann and Klesse —10 define heteronormativity as a sociocultural system of hierarchic power that intends —and usually succeeds — to regulate human sexuality, establishing what is acceptable and what is not, while influencing institutions such as the family, the world of work, etc. Berlant and Warner claim that [h]eteronormativity is more than ideology, or prejudice, or phobia against gays and lesbians; it is produced in almost every aspect of the forms and arrangements of social life: nationality, the state, and the law; commerce; medicine; and education as well as in the conventions and affects of narrativity, romance, and other protected spaces of culture.
The existence of queer heterosexuals — to put it in a nutshell, those who make use of gender-bender behavior in order to split heterosexual conventions, while retaining their sexual attraction towards the opposite sex — has been widely discussed. As Baraz and van den Berg point out, two major currents of thought have emerged. Baraz and van den Berg On the other hand, the second strand focuses on the space where the interaction happens and, thus, local and systematic interactions may be distinguished. Other authors like Pucci defend, however, that the intertext is only a mere potentiality within the text.
Rightly so! For instance, McLean, following Klein distinguishes different types of being bisexual: historical, situational, temporary, episodic, concurrent or experimental. The parallelism is established from his early adolescence, when he stars in a school production of The Tempest and is cast as Ariel.
They showed two pictures to several subjects of study in order to find out to what extent their minds linked genitalia and gender identity. The first picture showed a human being with female physical features — full breasts, long hair, wide hips, etc —, and a penis, while the other one possessed masculine attributes and a vagina. Ignoring the numerous masculine and feminine physical features, most of the subjects thought that a vagina is what makes a woman a woman, and, even more, a penis is what actually defines a man.
For further information on the history of the representations of The Tempest, see Griffiths, 11, or Williams no pagination. When he is seventeen, Billy discovers that his platonic love, Miss Frost, the school librarian, was born as Albert Frost. Readers of The Tempest can make their own choice, based on the reasons pro and against its maleness or femaleness listed below.
As for the audience of the play, they are usually offered by the director an already solved answer to the dilemma. Moreover, Ariel spends most of the play under one of the feminine forms which Prospero makes it adopt — a water nymph, a harpy, or the goddesses Ceres, Juno or Iris —, which explains its frequent impersonation by women onstage.
However, I side with other critics who refuse to label Ariel as either male or female — and as it will be argued below, so does John Irving. Robert R. Reed, Jr. Ariel: Do you love me, master? Consequently, while the domination Prospero exerts over Caliban derives from racial otherness, we may claim that he also subjugates Ariel using a gender basis. He deliberately chooses not to represent it as either male or female, in spite of casting his stepson for the role. The simplest interpretation he mentions is that, since only male actors were allowed in Elizabethan theatre, adding a male character was easier for Shakespeare than to include a new female one.
Bearing in mind that, as has already been mentioned, Ariel takes a female shape for most of the play, such a simplistic explanation can be easily debunked. According to Richard, this continuum would lose its credibility were Ariel represented as a female character. Even though I find the idea of the spiritual continuum interesting, I argue that the inclusion of the few female characters in it — Miranda, the absent Sycorax or even a hypothetical female Ariel— would not endanger its validity.
On the contrary, as they could portray other stages of the scale, this would only be enriched and completed. Erroneously, 8herr Grau states that teenagers are in that phase, typified by the search of sexual pleasure with any part of the body — not just with their genitalia —, and frequently channeled through incestuous and bisexual impulses. In the s, when Billy Abbot is a self-proclaimed bisexual man who misses an aesthetic and behavioral role model to comply with, as he tries to reassert his bisexual identity, he will turn to Ariel again.
Not knowing how to look bisexual and attract both men and women, Billy resorts again to his alter ego Ariel, as he intends [t]o look sexually mutable, to capture something of Ariel's unresolved sexuality […] I could also be invisible when I wanted to be —like Ariel, I could be 'an airy spirit' He is, obviously, mistaken because when Freud defined this polymorphous-perverse phase, he placed it in early infancy, not in adolescence. That brought anxiety to the audience, unless the director chose to make Ariel undoubtedly male or female. It can be applied to many of the characters of his novels, and Billy Abbot is no exception, of course.
Stereotypes about promiscuity and affective inconsistency often function as a self-fulfilling prophecy for bisexuals, dooming them to reproduce them, partly because of the lack of positive role models with whom to identify. On the other hand, Ariel provides Billy with guidance and assistance during his bisexual self-affirmation and coming-out process, and even as a role model during his adulthood, as a fellow sufferer of prejudice and anxiety caused by his sexual difference. American Journal of Philology, Berlant, L. Critical Inquiry, 24 2 — Intimacy: Bordo, S. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Ambivalence, liminality and plurality. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishers. Nesler, M. Accessed 1 Feb. Genette, G. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Guest, D. Hornsby and K. Stone eds. Bible trouble: Queer reading at the boundaries of biblical scholarship. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, Griffiths, T. Hartman, J and C. Klesse Hartmann et al. Wiesbaden: Verlag zu Socialwissenschafter, Hinds, S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Israel, T. Fox ed. Current research on bisexuality. New York: Harrington Park Press, Klein, F. New York: Harrington Park Press.
McLean, K. Journal of Sociology, 43 2 : Pucci, J. Reed, R. Shakespeare Quarterly. Rothblum, and L. Bond eds. Preventing heterosexism and homophobia. Thompson, A. White ed. The Tempest: Contemporary critical essays. London: Macmillan Press, Warner, M. Social Text, Williams, D. My aim is to discuss the effectiveness of the central character, who is a female rogue, in the novel. Frank Wadleigh Chandler, for his part, had already located picaresque literature within the wider context of rogue literature The Literature of Roguery, , effectively launching the study of this genre.
Chandler also explained how the literature of roguery is primarily associated with the novel. While in terms of form it is linked to picaresque literature, thematically it may be characterized by subject-matter it deals with roguish behaviour , observed reality and the depiction of low-life and manners: The literature of roguery occupies a peculiar place in the history of letters. Determined by subject-matter rather than by form, and depending upon observed actuality rather than ideals, it presents low life in lieu of heroic, and manners rather than conscience and emotion.
It prefers prose to verse, descriptive narrative to drama, and is therefore primarily associated with the novel. Such a character has caught the attention of British novelists over several centuries. It is not my aim to go through the history of the rogue novel.
These novelists developed and transformed the rogue character, using their fiction to articulate the social transformations of their generation, with a notable impact on contemporary British writers, various of whom present roguish characters in their fiction and share themes associated with the rogue novel.
Furthermore, they direct us to other subject areas, such as postcolonial studies, magical realism, feminist and lesbian studies. See Fernandes Both Fevvers and Jeanette gradually escape from the restrictive roles assigned to them by a patriarchal society and claim their freedom. Ultimately, a study entirely devoted to the figure of the female rogue would open up the field, pointing towards new directions in the analysis of contemporary rogue literature.
Hutcheon presents a framework within which to discuss its manifestations, outlining the model and historical background of postmodernism. The postmodernist novel therefore becomes a privileged space in which to question concepts that have come to be associated with liberal humanism, such as autonomy, centre, closure, authority, uniqueness, origin, among others. Contemporary British fiction abounds with examples of such notions, as found in the novels and short stories of Peter Ackroyd, Martin Amis, Julian Barnes, A. These postmodern writers often deploy anti-heroes or rogues who effectively reflect the rapid transformations that Western society has undergone in recent decades and the conflicts that have emerged from those changes.
The protagonist of Nights at the Circus is undoubtedly an anti-hero, a female rogue, whose version of facts is ambiguous, to say the least. Not billed the 'Cockney Venus', for nothing, sir, though they could just as well 'ave called me 'Helen of the High Wire', due to the unusual circumstances in which I come ashore - for I never docked via what you might call the normal channels, sir, oh, dear me, no; but, just like Helen of Troy, was hatched.
In London in the first part of the novel , he interviews the main character, falls in love with her and decides to join the circus in which Fevvers, the female aerialist, is the main attraction. He follows her through Russia, in particular, Saint Petersburg in the second part of the novel and finally Siberia in the third and last part of the novel.
Itinerancy is, of course, a standard feature of the rogue novel, allowing for an episodic structure with a recurrence of adventures closely linked to the space and atmosphere depicted. However, both the diction of time and space are tainted by fantasy in what can be understood as a postmodern subversion of the conventions associated with the tradition of the rogue novel. Both are products of 19th-century Western society and the way women are portrayed: [T]he confidence woman, like the confidence man, uses disguise, deception, and manipulation to get what she wants, and, as with him, an aura of comedy surrounds her.
She, like the confidence man, is a storyteller, has a gift for making people believe — whatever she wants. But there the similarity ends. Because women, especially in the nineteenth century, are not perceived as having the same access to goods and financial power as men […]. Henceforward all quotations will be signalled by NC followed by the number of the pages quoted. Postmodern fiction challenges the reader with ontological questions concerning the status of reality and the world, questioning narrative un reliability, aspects explored by the American critic Brian McHale in his book, Postmodernist Fiction: Among the oldest of the classic ontological themes in poetics is that of the otherness of the fictional world, its separation from the real world of experience.
In addition, they inevitably refer outside their internal field to an external field of reference: the objective world, the body of historical fact or scientific theory, an ideology or philosophy, other texts, and so on. Brian Finney argues: The entire fictional narrative is a gigantic confidence trick, meant to fool us as convincingly as Fevvers fooled Walser, the fact-laden and skeptical auditor of her narrative. As Carter has explained, ending with Fevvers' "I really fooled you" "doesn't make you realize the fictionality of what has gone before, it makes you start inventing other fictions In fooling Walser, Fevvers has transformed his life.
Dreams, fantasies and imaginings have now become a legitimate part of his consciousness. In it, Carter is mainly concerned with the nature of the individual, the relationship between the sexes and the status of women throughout history. Justine is a woman as she has been until now, enslaved, miserable, and less than human; her opposite, Juliette, represents the woman whose advent he anticipated, a figure of whom minds have as yet no conception, who is rising out of mankind, and will have wings and who will renew the world.
However, simultaneously, Fevvers is a spectacle, a grotesque object of contemplation, reminding us of what Guy Debord foresaw: Understood in its totality, the spectacle is both the outcome and the goal of the dominant mode of production. It is not something added to the real world — not a decorative element, so to speak. In all its specific manifestations — news or propaganda, advertising or the actual consumption of entertainment — the spectacle epitomizes the prevailing model of social life.
It is the omnipresent celebration of a choice already made in the sphere of production, and the consummate result of that choice. Four essays. Michael Holquist; Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin and London: University of Texas Press. Bakhtin, M. Helene Iswolsky. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. Carter, A. London: Virago Press. Chandler, F. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. De Grave, K. Debord, G. Donald Nicholson-Smith. New York: Zone Books. Fernandes, A.
Lisboa: Colibri. Survival and metamorphosis in contemporary British literature and culture. Brussels: Peter Lang. Finney, B. Accessed 28 Feb. Hutcheon, L. London and New York: Routledge. McHale, B. Russo, M. Easton ed. Angela Carter: Contemporary critical essays. Basingstoke: Macmillan, It is originally mimetic and identical, particular and abyssal. It is Beautiful, but its aesthetic dimension is also ethically scary, although it is always good or balanced. Information-matter is always re-presentation, in the literal and substitutive sense: to present again, which is only conceivable by approaching space-time as space-time, and not as temporal representations of space as identity or spatial representations of time as a discontinuity.
Celia Wallhead-Salway is the most generous person I know, as a teacher, as a scholar and as a human being. I have seen her generosity resist the opposition of human meanness many times while her belief in giving stayed firm. The more undeserving the recipient, the more stubborn her generosity seems to be.
I know because I am one of those undeserving who profited from her, many times. I have been honored to collaborate with her in several academic tasks, always to my profit. We could not be more different, yet I want to deserve. This is the sketch of an exclusively theoretical, tentative approach to poiesis that tackles the ethical dimension of mimesis understood in a very general sense on an aesthetic basis. The specific restrictions of this volume constrain the content of my contribution to the mere sketch of an instrument that I bring into form to be intra-actively tested, and, controversial as it may be, it aims at reconciling the many binary distinctions that at times condition ecocritical discourse.
It therefore relies on multiple complementarity rather than binarist supplementary, which is extremely useful in solving apparent contradictions. I will point to some of its applications to poiesis in the literary and literal sense of the word; that is, as literary creation and, literally, as natural creation. Then, I point to some of the consequences and applications that this instrument may have for the study of literary phenomena within a wider posthumanist aesthetic and ethical frame.
Bohr would question this apparent solution by pointing to the fact that the conditional preexistence of the subject, instrument and object of observation that was required for their interaction during experiments was an unjustifiably axiomatic theoretical construct. After observing that experimental results were conditioned by the specific design of experiments, Bohr redefined the object of scientific study as phenomenon, involving the entangled intra- action Barad of observer, instrument and object, which only become determinate in each particular phenomenon.
Two immediate controversial consequences of such redefinition are 1 that the elements involved in each observation i. The most striking aspect of this complementarity is that the definition of phenomena applies to the microscopic as well as the macroscopic dimensions in a post- anthropocentric vision of everything that is that does not distinguish between living and dead matter because everything is intra-actively connected by complementary relation. To Barad, each intra-action in the physical world is an entangled an act of observation and literally production of reality.
Iteration Barad argues that phenomenal intra-actions replace the reflexive model of representation with the diffractive one, the mimetic with the creative. This implies that every act of observation diffracts — rather than reflects — all the elements involved in observation, and is thus an act of creation. And yet, Barad defines her agential realist method as one that is to engage aspects of each [natural sciences and social sciences, corresponding to the material discursive binary] in dynamic relationality to the other, being attentive to the iterative production of boundaries, the material-discursive nature of boundary-drawing practices, the constitutive exclusions that are enacted, and questions of accountability and responsibility for the reconfigurings of which we are a part.
In favoring the simultaneous occurrence of differential cuts and material configurations of phenomena, the spatial takes over the temporal in a presentist picture of change. My italics. In other words, Barad seems to intimate a definition of iteration by which all phenomena are destroyed and created anew every time. While I agree that this is the case, it is only part of the case. Since phenomena cannot cease to exist once they have been differentially cut, so they must pre-exist differential cuts in other subsequent phenomena.
In other words, in order to be re-configured, certain cuts must have been configured in a continuum that must be as reflexive as it is diffractive. Despite their advocacy for change, both of them assume the preexistence of a model or pattern that to a certain extent determines — though not completely — the production of new models Barad I contend that re-production as re-presentation is mimetically creative, that matter is always mimetically complete in its intra-actions, which occur in order to restore such completeness against the changes impelled by an intra-actively determined time vector.
It is differences that change, impelled by the necessity to keep an ontological-relational balance that is synchronically sensed as pattern. Below, I sketch my model to account for iterative production. The Code exists in is space-time, and is therefore categorical-ontological and relational space as well as potestas and potential in the Spinozian sense, different and same. Paradoxically, this amounts to saying that change is aimed at keeping this balance in what is.
Yet the paradox only becomes apparent in mutually exclusive binary thinking position and momentum ; in complementary thinking, it is not. I contend that sameness and difference are complementary in keeping balance through time, and that the fact that the past remains open to material reconfiguring does not mean it did not exist before. Difference is cut on the basis of self-sameness; if change were not also self-mimetic, results would never be consistent. This is true and false. It is true that nothing existed before because there is only the here-now. But it is also true that, as King Lear warned his beloved Cordelia I:1 following the ex nihilo nihil fit of Greek Philosophy and the ex nihilo fit enscreatum of the Judeo-Christian tradition, intra-active matter exists.
Yet we can take both as true by considering space-time and wave-particle as a whole that becomes binary only because the instrument of observation is binary. Barad explains that apparently paradoxical results obtained in quantum physics i. This amounts to saying that change and balance are entangled so that difference can be considered an actualization of sameness understood as open possibilities , and that the results rendered by quantum eraser experiments imply that such difference can be erased to restore indeterminacy if differential choice is delayed.
The balance of each new potentia intra-active indeterminacy is tested by relational potestas. My main divergence with mainstream ecological approaches to accountability lies in its post- anthropocentric, holistic view of agency, which extends accountability not only to human, but also to all living and non-living matter-discourse. Since it transcends — although it also includes — human ethics and aesthetics, accountability is demanded from all agency with the same rigor, which by no means involves the categorical projections that are often found in the analogies established by ecocritical discourse usually projecting humanity over non-human agents—or the other way round—on the unaccounted assumption of differential hierarchical structures 7.
Potestas must be understood relationally among all matter-discourse that is, since closed systems are an instrumental fallacy of binary thinking that cannot be found in nature. Changes occur simultaneously because imbalance is impossible. Such changes are re-presentations which obey to creative poietic mimesis. I contend that possibilities are limited by aesthetic balance, or a sense of fitting the Code. Similarly, it points to the informational load or signification of matter as what matters.
In other words; all re-ferences are material intra-actions that constitute matter in differential sameness; re-ferences are re-presentations. Discursive practices do have a finality, which is the same as the finality of all intra-actions, imitation so as to balance change: the intra-action between time and space or creative mimesis. Furthermore, when discussing objectivity within the frame of agential realism, Barad concentrates on the referent of measured values as phenomena, while disregarding the phenomenal character of values themselves , the fact that the re-presentative means that account for phenomena are phenomenal themselves, which I consider to be the key to re-presentability i.
If the ethical dimension of agential cuts must be accounted for diffractively as well as reflexively, and if balance is to be the mimetic encoded test of ethical accountability, it only remains to account for what determines balance. But in fact, even theoretical experiments occur in nature, and not only because there is nothing outside what is natural but because phenomenal intra- action does not allow to disentangle the natural from the artificial—at least not without giving in to unaccounted anthropocentrism.
My emphasis. Rather than an inescapable mediating disturbance of objective knowledge, the cogito that is cut in each phenomena involving human intra-action, allows human beings an inside perspective on how does mimesis operate in seeking balance in us or through us; how we decide on balance that cuts us. Considering the wide range of apparently contradictory decisions that human beings decide to be appropriate, there is still a mimetic response to appropriateness encoded in our discursive materializations in pleasure.
What is balanced pleases because it fits or is intra-actively creatively appropriate mimetic. Although it is not universally determinate because it is subject to intra-action, pleasure is an immediate response at the centre of ethical decisions as well as aesthetic ones. The advantage of aesthetics is that it can be used as a testing ground for appropriateness where we more or less safely explore the potential determinations of potestas, because its subtle materiality can be more easily disregarded in our dimension i.
In fact, the aesthetics of potentia is often determinant in cutting material potestas, which explains the existence of censorship over centuries of artistic re-presentations. These reflections should not be considered as a humanist turn to my argument, since phenomena involving human intra-actionare here presented as one among many not a superior forms of intra-action. While the scientific field took refuge in empiricism and ethics strived to find forms of secularized social organization and political action that would replace religious dogmatism, the value of originality began to replace imitation in aesthetics as the new was imposed over the old.
Since then, originality in art began to replace the old concern about mimesis of both form and content, which ceased to be part of the aesthetic ideal in order to become the aesthetic and economic anathema of plagiarism in the nineteenth century, and to cause the psychoanalytic pathology of anxiety of influence and the technological dystopia of the precession of simulacra in the twentieth.
It must be noted that I refer to this reality as a dual one for convenience only, but that I actually mean it to be considered as space-time. Yet it is also matter, and interacts with other modes of matter-information. So while the early Romantics still perceived that the purpose of aesthetics was updating recycling? The result was that eternity, one of the essential purposes of art since antiquity, disappeared from aesthetics.
While the early twentieth century focused on formal experimentalism, the end of the millennium was mainly marked by social concerns. Yet constant to both diverging approaches, was a general disregard for the connection between the material and referential aspects of art. Generally speaking, the ontic dimension of re-presentation grants determinacy as much as potential accuracy to phenomenal mimesis potestas , thus ending with perpetual, abyssal difference as well as the hyperreality of preceding simulacra by reinstating the possibility of aesthetic quality versus commoditized quantity in poietic mimesis.
It also advocates for the materiality sensuality of art in its coincidence or entanglement with meaning the return of rhetorics , long lost behind the merely conceptual or experimental. It also does without the anxiety of influence caused by the imbalanced preeminence of originality versus imitation while allowing for the continuous re-production of originals considered either as original aesthetic productions as much as aesthetic sources, since all aesthetic phenomena are entangled intra-active re-presentations and re-productions, including acts of reading or observation, criticism, rewritings, parody, pastiche, etc.
It [the Code] endows art with intra-active function within wider and narrower phenomena, which imbues it with an ethical dimension that is a particular instance of aesthetic balance. Finally, it extends aesthetic quality beyond the anthropocentric scope, including the microscopic and macroscopic, human and non-human, living and non-living participants, understanding Nature everything that is or YHVH as the aesthetic targeting balance occurrence of poietic mimesis. The Code also helps Ecology rid itself from the task of distinguishing between living and dead matter, 12 since it includes both; everything is Code.
It literalizes the metaphorical use of poiesis in the aesthetic domain, while conferring the poiesis of natural science a re- presentative status, which grants the possibility of aesthetic and ethical quality in terms of mimesis as well as their originality and flexibility.
It is a post-human instrument that allows accounting for human as well as non-human intra-action from within, that is; a post-anthropocentric instrument that operates within humanist premises. Finally, it meets some of the theoretical dilemmas of twentieth-century critical theory within the field of aesthetics. Bennet, J. Braidotti, R. Latour, B. New Haven: SUMILLERA Universidad de Granada Although it would not be until the s that works written with the sole purpose of defending poetry began to be published in England, the first defences of poetry are found in treatises dealing with rhetorical teachings rather than with specifically poetical matters, as many books on rhetoric supported and defended poetry because they perceived it as a neighbouring discipline, one from which the orator could benefit in terms of rhetorical training and in his professional practice.
After an overview of the touchstones of anti-poetic sentiment in England, a selection of the arguments employed by the advocates of poetry in their works specifically defending poetry will be discussed. Finally, it will be seen how such defences included in works of rhetoric produced since the early sixteenth century precede specific treatises on poetics in their advocacy of poetry, at times advancing more strictly poetic arguments, and on other occasions emphasising the benefits of poetry for orators. The early English Protestants appropriated antipoetic sentiment and entangled it with religious matters, and hence voices against poetry in the sixteenth century became widely heard, enjoyed considerable authority, and were even held as a sign of moral credibility and respectability.
SUMILLERA medieval doctrine, 1 and men of letters in general, devoted themselves to the difficult task of defending poetry—specifically on moral grounds. A lesser known aspect of the history of the defence of poetry in early modern England is that the first English defences of poetry are contained in works dealing with rhetorical teachings rather than with specifically poetical matters, as many works on rhetoric defended and indeed promoted poetry because it was understood as a sister art, and one from which the orator could benefit.
It would not be until the s that works written with the sole purpose of defending poetry appeared in England. The present chapter focuses on this initial stage of the process of defending poetry in the early sixteenth century, providing first a brief introduction to the main arguments employed by both attackers and advocates of the form, and an outline of the relationship between rhetoric and poetry and poetics at the time.
From this perspective, poetry had a problematic relationship with truth and morality, as it was associated with lies, falsehood and deceit, and with the excitement of emotions and ignoble passions. In addition to moral objections, the supposed lack of any specific use for poetry was also fundamental in its damnation during the Renaissance, when poetry was presented as a distracting force that drew men away from work, and hence was an unprofitable occupation for decent subjects. Then, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the translators of the Bible, Tyndale and Coverdale, stigmatised poetry as pernicious, contrasting the partial truth poetry was allegedly able to convey with the fully truthful teachings of the Scriptures.
Works of fiction were thus deemed filthy sources of corruption and distraction from what was truly worthy of being read. If at first the arguments about poetry occurred between humanists and scholastics, by the mid- s some humanists were also writing attacks on poetry. In De tradendis disciplinis Vives recognized that poetry could raise some moral problems, for which reason he approved of censorship.
By linking fiction to Catholicism, Tyndale made antipoetic sentiment part of the programme of Protestantism, and consequently such ideas spread to all levels of society. From then on, the two discourses were unavoidably fused Herman , to the degree that the Puritan anti- theatrical prejudice has often been understood in connection to the Puritan idea of the Catholic mass, also seen as a theatrical performance Barish Nevertheless, not all attacks against poetry came from divines or from Puritans, as C. Lewis noted At the root of his objection to poetry i. Gosson implicitly criticises English court life, seeing it as decadent and exclusively concerned with leisure and pleasures such as music, dancing and banqueting, and unconcerned with discipline and service.
In contrast, he looks back with nostalgia to the picture of a warrior aristocracy as an exemplary social class. Unlike sensible human poetry, it is argued, the poetry of the Bible was directly inspired in Man by God. Faced with these furious opinions and destructive assessments of poetry and the figure of the poet, the early modern advocates of the poetic craft, including poets, playwrights and translators, felt compelled to do their best to defend it, using a myriad of arguments to this end.
The argument was not one that justified the intrinsic and independent value of poetry, but rather operated at the expense of its dependence on ethics. The allegorical potential of poetry was also used to defend it against charges of triviality and falsehood on the grounds that poetry revealed some concealed truth, that it was connected to history and theology, that it set examples of virtue, and that it attempted to dissuade the reader from vice through negative exemplarity.
To Platonic objections, Renaissance theorists replied that because Plato himself had asserted that good poets were divinely inspired, the result of their activity could by no means be immoral or false. Later, drawing on Aristotle, Renaissance defenders of poetry attempted to present the mimetic character of poetry in a positive light, and in this regard Neoplatonism argued that poets directly imitated divine ideas by elevating themselves over the sensible and material world to the truer realm of the divine.
For Neoplatonism, therefore, both art and nature equally copied the same original, and so it was quite possible that the products of art should sometimes exceed those of nature. Finally, poetry was frequently defended in the English Renaissance through the Horacian doctrine of its ability to teach docere and delight delectare. In this regard, J. The work consisted of three parts: the first one dealt with the origins of poetry; the second with the positive qualities of poetry excellence, usefulness and delight , and the third with a response to some objections to poetry on the grounds of its supposed worthlessness, its appeal to the senses, and its potentially dangerous effects.
As a result, the only possible solution for Lodge was to distribute the book privately and anonymously one year later Herman In fact, J. The Oratio in Laudem Artis Poeticae c. The Middle Ages continued to see this link as inseparable, and later, in the early stages of Humanism, poetry was seen as a form of eloquence, Petrarch being one of the main exponents of this view. Nevertheless, the humanists gradually began to regard poetics as an autonomous endeavour, and identified figurative language as the chief characteristic of poetry, with rhetoric only secondarily related to it.
Even Petrus Ramus admitted commonalities between poetry and rhetoric, seeing both along with history as a means of deceiving their audiences into drawing conclusions which they had no intention of drawing, and also regarding the orator, the poet and the historian as failed teachers Ong According to D. That rhetoric came to the rescue and defence of poetry in such an adverse climate towards the latter is perhaps unsurprising. What is more, rhetorical writings defended poetry from the very beginning of the sixteenth century, long before works exclusively defending poetry on poetic grounds appeared, which only happened in the decade of the s.
Persuasion in poetry is, according to Clark, explained by the belief in the Renaissance that the final goal of poetry was moral improvement, a notion derived from the middle ages, classical rhetoric, and the criticism of the Italian Renaissance Clark Elyot defends the labour of poets at length, who, unlike mere versifiers i. For the name of a Poete wherat nowe, specially in this realme, men haue suche indignation, that they vse only poetes and poetry in the contempte of eloquence was in auncient tyme in highe estymation: in so moche that all wysedome was supposed to be therin included.
And poetry was the first philosophy that ever was knowen. According to Wilson, poets deliberately spoke obscurely about these issues to convey moral teachings only to those who deserved to understand them: The Poetes were wise men, and wished in harte the redresse of thinges, the whiche when for feare they durst not openly rebuke, thei didde in coloures paynte theim oute, and tolde menne by shadowes what they shoulde do in good south: or els because the wycked were unworthy to heare the truth, they spake so, that none myght understande, but those unto whom they pleased to utter their meaninge, and knewe them to be menne of honeste conversation.
As has been seen, the first defenders of poetry in sixteenth-century England were not poets or authors of poetics but reputed orators, who expressed praise for poetry from the beginning of the century onwards, as they were convinced of the importance of poetry both as a craft distinct from rhetoric, as well as an art that could benefit orators and rhetoricians in the process of composing their speeches. Poets and theoreticians of poetry would only take up the baton from rhetoricians from the s onwards, enlarging their praise of poetry, not uncommonly by using similar arguments, but also by elaborating on poetical notions that eventually led to the perception of poetics as a separate even if still cognate field from rhetoric.
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