Chocolate: A Global History (Edible)

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They are sometimes sold in small packages at specialty stores and markets to be used in cooking, snacking, and chocolate dishes. Since nibs are directly from the cocoa tree, they contain high amounts of theobromine. Most nibs are ground, using various methods, into a thick, creamy paste, known as chocolate liquor or cocoa paste. This "liquor" is then further processed into chocolate by mixing in more cocoa butter and sugar and sometimes vanilla and lecithin as an emulsifier , and then refined, conched and tempered.

Alternatively, it can be separated into cocoa powder and cocoa butter using a hydraulic press or the Broma process. Treating with alkali produces Dutch-process cocoa powder, which is less acidic, darker, and more mellow in flavor than what is generally available in most of the world. Regular nonalkalized cocoa is acidic, so when cocoa is treated with an alkaline ingredient, generally potassium carbonate, the pH increases. Another process that helps develop the flavor is roasting, which can be done on the whole bean before shelling or on the nib after shelling.

The time and temperature of the roast affect the result: A "low roast" produces a more acid, aromatic flavor, while a high roast gives a more intense, bitter flavor lacking complex flavor notes. Cocoa contains various phytochemicals , such as flavanols including epicatechin , procyanidins , and other flavanoids , which are under preliminary research for their possible cardiovascular effects.

The beans contain between 0.

Ripened Over Time

The relative poverty of many cocoa farmers means that environmental consequences such as deforestation are given little significance. For decades, cocoa farmers have encroached on virgin forest, mostly after the felling of trees by logging companies. This trend has decreased as many governments and communities are beginning to protect their remaining forested zones. When cocoa bean prices are high, farmers may invest in their crops, leading to higher yields which, in turn tends to result in lower market prices and a renewed period of lower investment.

Cocoa production is likely to be affected in various ways by the expected effects of global warming. Specific concerns have been raised concerning its future as a cash crop in West Africa, the current centre of global cocoa production. If temperatures continue to rise, West Africa could simply become unfit to grow the beans.

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Cacao beans also have a potential to be used as a bedding material in farms for cows. Using cacao bean husks in bedding material for cows had beneficial effects on udder health results in less bacterial growth and ammonia levels less ammonia levels on bedding.

Chocolate: A Global History

Cocoa beans may be cultivated under shaded conditions, e. Agroforestry can reduce the pressure on existing protected forests for resources, such as firewood, and conserve biodiversity. Research of their shade-grown coffee counterparts has shown that greater canopy cover in plots is significantly associated to greater mammal species richness and abundance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Fatty seed of Theobroma cacao which is the basis of chocolate. For other uses of "Cacao", see Cacao disambiguation.

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See also: History of chocolate. Main articles: Children in cocoa production and Harkin—Engel Protocol. This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Chocolate Production. Main article: Environmental impact of cocoa production. Free Dictionary. Retrieved 17 February Online Etymology Dictionary. Infobase Publishing. In Cameron L. McNeil ed. University Press of Florida. Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 12 November Cocoa: Updating Your Chocolate Vocabulary". Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 13 November Penn Museum.

Archived from the original on 24 January Cocoa 4th ed.

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Oxford: Blackwell Science. Mexico: Editores Mexicanos Unidos, S. Retrieved 8 November The Exploratorium. Barry Callebaut. The New York Times. Retrieved 1 February The manufacture of chocolate and other cacao preparations 3rd ed. Berlin: Verlag von M. Tropical agriculture serie 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons. Labor practices in the cocoa sector of Ghana with a special focus on the role of children.

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International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Handbook of food science, technology, and engineering. CRC Press. The international cocoa trade 2nd ed.

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Woodhead Publishing. Labor practices in the cocoa sector of southwest Nigeria with a focus on the role of children. Confectionery News. Retrieved 2 February International Cocoa Organization. Retrieved 31 January Cocoa Life. Retrieved 7 March Latest News. Does Sriracha have a new recipe now? Beloved company begins fiery legal battle.

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Looking for More Spice? Join the Sriracha Nation! Visit Us! Shop Online! We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to use this website you are giving consent to cookies being used. Cups of cocoa. Hot fudge sundaes. Chocolate is synonymous with our cultural sweet tooth, our restaurant dessert menus, and our idea of indulgence.

Chocolate is adored around the world and has been since the Spanish first encountered cocoa beans in South America in the sixteenth century.